（a figure of speech） The use of phrases， clauses， or sentences that are similar or complementary in structure or in meaning. Parallelism is a form of repetition.
The quality in a work of literature or art that arouses the reader‘s feelings of pity， sorrow， or compassion for a character. The term is usually used to refer to situations in which innocent characters suffer through no fault of their own.
It‘s the type of speaking or writing that is intended to make its audience adopt a certain opinion or perform an action or do both. Persuasion is one of the major forms of discourse.
It‘s an important poetic device characterized by efforts to achieve striking visual effects. Among its features are irregularity of line， contrast or enchantment of light， color and image. Other means of pictorialism include personification， juxtaposition and the matching of colors with verbs of action.
It originated among the conservative groups of men and letters as a reaction against Enlightenment and found its most manifest expression in the “Gothic novel”。 The term arising from the fact that the greater part of such romances were devoted to the medi times.
The central character of a drama， novel， short story， or narrative poem. The protagonist is the character on whom the action centers and with whom the reader sympathizes most. Usually the protagonist strives against an opposing force， or antagonist ， to accomplish something.
A song or lyric poem in praise of God.
218. Psychological Realism（心理现实主义）
It is the realistic writing that probes deeply into the complexities of characters‘ thoughts and motivations. Henry James is considered the founder of psychological realism. His novel The Ambassadors is considered to be a masterpiece of psychological realism.
The use of a word or phrase to suggest tow or more meaning at the same time. Puns are generally humorous.
Usually a stanza or poem of four lines. A quatrain may also be any group of four lines unified by a rhyme scheme. Quatrains usually follow an abab， abba， or abcb rhyme scheme.
the five-line stanza.
A word phrase， line or group of lines repeated regularly in a poem， usually at the end of each stanza. Refrains are often used in ballads and narrative poems to create a songlike rhythm and to help build suspense. Refrains can also serve to emphasize a particular idea.
It is one of the three basic elements of traditional poetry. It is the arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables into a pattern. Rhythm often gives a poem a distinct musical quality. Poets also use rhythm to echo meaning.
The analysis of verse in terms of meter.
the seven-line stanza. Chaucerian stanza： ababbcc.