【答案】Morphemes which are independent of other morphemes are considered to be free.
These morphemes have complete meanings in themselves and can be used as free grammatical units in sentences. They are identical with root words, as each of them consists of a single free root, for example, man, earth, wind, car, anger.
3. Explain what causes ambiguity in the sentence He is a hard businessman.
I. (Source of the ambiguity) The ambiguity of the sentence is caused by the word hard which is a polysemantic word.
II. (Analysis of the word) The word hard in this context can mean both ‘hardworking’ and ‘difficult’. The context fails to narrow down the meaning so that it is difficult for the reader to decide what exactly the speaker means.
III. (Improvement of the ambiguity) There would be no misunderstanding if the original sentence is extended as “He is a hard businessman to deal with”.
4. Explain radiation of word-meaning development.
【答案】Radiation is a semantic process in which the primary meaning stands at the center and the secondary meanings proceed out of it in every direction like rays. The meanings are independent of one another, but can all be traced back to the central meaning.
2. Explain the characteristics of antonyms according to the sentences.
a. How tall is his brother?
b. How short is his brother?
Antonyms differ in semantic inclusion. Pairs of antonyms are seen as marked and unmarked terms respectively. In many pairs we find that one member is more specific than the other and the meaning of the specific is included in that of the general.
So far as the meaning is concerned, sentence [a] includes the meaning of [b]. The use of tall does not exclude the possibility of his brother being very short. But sentence [b] is much more restricted in sense and is considered semantically abnormal unless the speaker is particularly interested in the “shortness” of his brother or curious enough to find out how short his brother is.